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Grapes (Crop Production Science In Horticulture...

Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) or winegrowing (wine growing) is the cultivation and harvesting of grapes. It is a branch of the science of horticulture. While the native territory of Vitis vinifera, the common grape vine, ranges from Western Europe to the Persian shores of the Caspian Sea, the vine has demonstrated high levels of adaptability to new environments, hence viticulture can be found on every continent except Antarctica.[1]

Grapes (Crop Production Science in Horticulture...

Evidence of ancient viticulture is provided by cuneiform sources (ancient writing on clay tablets), plant remains, historical geography, and archaeological excavations.[9] The remnants of ancient wine jars have been used to determine the culture of wine consumption and cultivated grape species.[10] In addition to winemaking, grapes have been grown for the production of raisins.[11]

The grape is classified as a berry. On the vine, grapes are organized through systems known as clusters. Grape clusters can vary in compactness which can result in long clusters (resulting in the grapes spreading out) or short clusters (resulting in grapes packed together).[27] In some grape species, clusters ripen collectively, which allows them to be harvested together.[28] For others, grapes may ripen individually within a cluster.Each grape berry contains a pedicel which attaches to the rachis. The main function of the rachis is to allow the grapes to receive their water and nutrients.[27] The pollination and fertilization of grapes results in one to four seeds within each berry. When fertilization does not occur, seedless grapes are formed, which are sought after for the production of raisins. Regardless of pollination and fertilization, most plants will produce around 100 to 200 grapes.[29]

Definition: A program that focuses on the application of scientific and agribusiness principles to the production of grapes, the making of wine, and the wine business. Includes instruction in grapes and wines of the world; grape production; winemaking technology; plant biology; chemistry; food science, safety, and packaging; soil science; pest management; and marketing and business management.

Position description: The School of Integrative Plant Science (SIPS) within the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (CALS) at Cornell University invites applications for a tenure track professorial position (70% Research: 30% Extension) in Horticulture, with emphasis on Grapevine Breeding, Genetics, and Genomics. A variety of research methods may be employed to address the complexity of grapevine genetics and environmental interactions focusing on the development of cultivars adapted to production in cool and cold climates and with reduced chemical inputs. The incumbent will have the unique opportunity to utilize our established and active grape breeding program and recent advances in genetics, genomics, phenomics, bioinformatics, and data management to further the science of grapevine improvement. Located in the world-renowned Finger Lakes wine region, Cornell AgriTech is a nexus for translational research, where opportunity abounds for collaboration on the utilization of germplasm, fruit and wine quality improvement, bioinformatics tools, abiotic and biotic stress resistance, and related topics. Research areas may include but are not limited to the genetics and genomics of biotic and abiotic stress resistance, fruit quality traits, vine architecture, crop load/yield, fruit ripening and other traits related to wine and fresh market grapevine improvement. This position will be one of the first to benefit from the new, state-of-the-art USDA-ARS National Grape Improvement Laboratory under development at AgriTech that will support important breakthroughs arising from research collaborations among the USDA scientists, Cornell scientists and others to benefit the wine and grape industries. The faculty member will also have the opportunity to be a part of the strategic vision for the future of CALS as the college executes a dynamic plan for Transdisciplinary Moonshot initiatives for cohort-based hirings to guide strategic research and collaboration into the future.

My research and outreach program is designed to address sustainability issues in the specialty crop industries in Vermont, particularly apples and grapes. Specific program areas include: technical support to address horticultural and pest management needs of Vermont fruit growers; assessment of organic fruit production systems; grape cultivar evaluation; assessment of apple production systems for hard cider markets; and alternative fertilization programs in vegetable production.

Virginia Tech's Department of Horticulture offers graduate and undergraduate degrees in a range of applied and basic environmental plant science topics, from plant-soil interactions, biotechnology, landscape design, sustainable urban landscaping, urban forestry, crop production, and plant breeding. Our department is committed to engaging students in service and learning projects in the local community. To read more about our Engaged Department Award,

2224: HORTICULTURE SCIENCE AND INDUSTRYSurvey course of horticultural crops (fruits, vegetables,ornamentals) and enterprises. Includes plant science andbusiness aspects of horticultural production and serviceindustries, and introduces related issues and emergingtechnologies such as work force characteristics,organic production, and biotechnology. I.(2H,2C)

At ShREC we are able to provide dry land and irrigated land for studies to facilitate research and education on agriculture, forage management, horticulture, and viticulture (the science, study and production of grapes), along with various other possibilities.

Introduction to horticulture with an emphasis on plant domestication, morphology, classification, world food crops, commodities, gardens, propagation, and agrochemicals. The course content of HORT 101, as indicated in the complete course outline, deals with the fundamental concepts and specialty areas, which contribute not only to the science and technology involved in horticulture but also to the art. It provides an overview of the role of various specialties of the natural sciences (e.g. plant morphology, physiology, taxonomy, genetics and nutrition, pest management, management and production of crops, landscaping, and technology) relevant to a range of plant uses from medicinals and food production to the aesthetic benefits derived from plants. The course begins with the origin and domestication of plants followed by: A. An Overview of horticulture which includes an explanation of the horticulture industry, how to achieve success in horticulture and the relationship between horticulture and the environment; B. Science in horticulture which includes the classification of plants, plant propagation, plant nutrition, environmental factors affecting plant growth and development, plant growth regulators, post harvest physiology and pest management; C. Management and production of horticultural crops which include nursery, floral, turfgrass, vegetable, fruit and nuts; D. Landscaping including designing landscapes, xeroscapes and sitescapes, establishing and maintaining landscapes; and E. Concluding with Technology in horticulture. The course content additionally includes major areas of knowledge based on the fundamentals, universal concepts and achievements in the cluster of scientific disciplines comprising horticulture and provides students with the opportunity to appreciate that the origins, domestication and production of cultivated plants are the essence of human existence.

Introduction to the principles of wine production emphasizing basic wine grape biology, fermentation science, wine chemistry, and wine perception. FDSC 233 / HORT 233 provides an interdisciplinary treatment of the science of grape growing, vinification, and wine consumption. Students will learn how viticultural practices translate to wine chemistry, and how key variables associated with that conversion affect consumer perception. The course will cover topics such as basic grapevine physiology, vineyard management practices, vinification, domestic and international wine styles, and consumer interactions with wine (e.g., sensory evaluation, health aspects of wine). Although the course is considered to be introductory, students must have a basic grounding in university-level chemistry and biology. Course material will be primarily transmitted through lectures, reading assignments to be completed outside of class, and brief practical exercises in the Sensory Evaluation Center (Department of Food Science).

An overview of small fruit crop production, including grapes, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, blueberries, cranberries, currants and gooseberries. The botany and physiology of each crop is discussed so students understand how the crops can be manipulated for maximum production under various environmental conditions. Production practices are described for each crop, including growing requirements, cultivar selection, planting systems, pruning, plant nutrition, frost protection, irrigation scheduling, harvest and postharvest handling, mechanization, and pest identification and control. Sustainable production techniques, including aspects of organic production methods, are stressed. Laboratories in the field stress hands-on production practices.

Cultural requirements of important vegetable crops in conjunction with physiological processes and problems related to commercial production. This course will provide students with information, techniques and ideas to produce vegetable crops on a commercial scale. Students learn production fundamentals applying to aIl vegetable crops including fertility management, transplant production, season extension, and pest management during the first part of the semester. This is followed by detailed and specific information for important vegetables on the science of producing high quality crops. Using a participatory approach students learn important techniques to successful production including experimenting on a small scale, designing a drip irrigation system, scouting for pests and developing a pest management strategy. Field trips to successful operations and outlets and the research farm are important elements of the class. 041b061a72


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